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Applications

Applications Note CEM of Turbine and IC Engine Exhaust by FT-IR Spectroscopy

Better/Faster/Cheaper Method

Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. has demonstrated the FT-IR based MG-2010 from On-Line Technologies, Inc. during shake-down testing and continuous emission monitoring (CEM) of turbine and internal combustion (IC) engines. The MG-2010 is unique in its ability to monitor many species simultaneously over a very wide concentration range, from sub-ppm to percent, at a fraction of the cost of traditional multi-species emission stations.  The MG-2010 replaces the traditional rack of several individual gas analyzers with a single compact instrument. The MG-2010 is also able to perform speciation of hydrocarbons and report concentrations on species previously considered difficult to measure, such as formaldehyde.

Demonstrated Application

A benchmark comparison of the MG-2010 to a rack of traditional analyzers was performed on a turbine test rig fired with natural gas at an Air Force test facility (see Figure 1). The exhaust gas supplied to the MG-2010 was extracted from the test rig using the same sampling rake and transfer line used by the traditional analyzers. The MG-2010 recorded concentrations at 30-second intervals (840 points over the 7 hours), while the traditional gas analyzers reported concentrations for a total of 36 different test points.

A data trace of the NO concentration measured with the MG-2010 compared to the 36 test points is shown in Figure 2. Good agreements in measurements were also obtained for CO, CO2, total hydrocarbons and total NOx, but a limited dynamic range was exhibited for the traditional CO (1000 ppm upper limit) and total hydrocarbon (3000ppm upper limit) analyzers. The traditional total hydrocarbon analyzer, a flame ionization detector, is a nonspecific hydrocarbon analyzer.  The MG-2010, on the other hand, is capable of speciating hydrocarbons.  Methane, formaldehyde, ethylene, propylene, and methanol concentrations were individually measured using the MG-2010. It is important to note that formaldehyde, which is on the EPA list of hazardous air pollutants, is difficult to measure on a real time basis using any technique other than FT-IR. In addition to the above species, nitrous acid (HONO) and formic acid (HCO2H), were measured with the MG-2010 during this combustor development test.

Ideal Instrument

The MG-2010 measured thirteen compounds simultaneously during this head-to-head test with the traditional rack of analyzers. Excellent performance, coupled with a small footprint and moderate price, make the MG-2010 an ideal instrument for routine monitoring of engine exhaust emissions. Since this benchmark comparison, exhaust emissions monitoring in industrial scale IC and turbine engines have been performed, including ammonia slip from catalytic reduction systems. The MG-2010 provided accurate, quantitative measurements for single digit ppm levels of NO, NO2, N2O and NH3.

For more details and information, contact:  Jim Markham (jim@AFRinc.com)

 

 

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For More Information Contact:
James R. Markham, CEO
Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
87 Church Street, East Hartford, CT  06108
Tel:  860-528-9806  ext.104
Fax:  860-528-0648
Jim@AFRinc.com